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mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli medicinis sferoSi gamoyenebul terminTa ganmartebani

დაბრუნდი უკან

qvemoT mocemulia ganmartebani terminebisa, romlebic praqtikos eqims Sexvdeba mtkicebulebiTi medicinis praqtikaSi ganxorcielebisas. ucxouri terminebis qarTuli Sesatyvisebi jerjerobiT unificirebuli ar aris, amitom TiToeul termins miTiTebuli aqvs maTi inglisuri Sesatyvisi. amasTan, ganmartebebis bolos miTiTebulia inglisuri terminebis CamonaTvali da maTi qarTuli Sesatyvisebi, agreTve inglisur terminTa Semoklebani, raTa mkiTxvels gauadvildes ganmartebis moZieba, roca misTvis cnobilia saZiebeli terminis mxolod inglisuri forma.

terminebis ganmartebebis Sedgenis procesSi gamoyenebulia sxvadasxva wyaro, romelTagan ZiriTadia The Clinical Evidence Glossary (BMJ), Glossary of Terms in The Cochrane Collaboration, Center for Evidence Based Medicine Glossary of EBM Terms da Medical University of Sauth Carolina Evidence Based Medicine Terms.

 

    l ნ ო


ძ წ W ხ  

 

a

absoluturi riski (Absolute risk, AR); analogiuria terminisa `SemTxvevis sixSire~ (Event rate): albaToba imisa, rom individi `ganicdis~ garkveul movlenas garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi. es monacemi icvleba 0-sa da 1-s Soris an gamoisaxeba procentulad.

is SeiZleba Seexebodes, rogorc arasasurvel movlenas (mag., miokardiumis infarqti), ise sasurvel gamosavals (mag., gankurneba).

absoluturi riskis zrda (Absolute risk increase, ARI): kvlevis farglebSi riskis absoluturi gansxvaveba or jgufs Soris – eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebs Soris. termini gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevebSi, roca riski eqsperimentul jgufSi aRemateba risks sakontrolo jgufSi. absoluturi riskis zrdis gamosaTvlelad eqsperimentuli jgufis absolutur risks akldeba sakontrolo jgufis absoluturi riski.

es monacemi ar iZleva saSualebas Sefasdes riskis fardobiTi zrda.

absoluturi riskis Semcireba (Absolute risk reduction, ARR): kvlevis farglebSi riskis absoluturi gansxvaveba or jgufs Soris – eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebs Soris. termini gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevebSi, roca riski sakontrolo jgufSi aRemateba risks eqsperimentul jgufSi. absoluturi riskis Semcirebis gamosaTvlelad sakontrolo jgufis absolutur risks akldeba eqsperimentuli jgufis absoluturi riski.

es monacemi ar iZleva saSualebas Sefasdes riskis fardobiTi Semcireba.

avadoba (Morbidity): daavadebis sixSire.

albaToba (Odds): movlenis albaToba miuTiTebs movlenis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobaze.

gamoiTvleba movlenis mqone pirTa raodenobis gayofiT im pirTa raodenobaze, romelTac aseTi movlena ar aReniSneba. magaliTad, 100-kacian populaciaSi Tu gardaicvleba 10 piri (da gadarCeba 90), maSin sikvdilis albaToba gamoiTvleba formuliT 10/90=1/9. am dros amboben, rom sikvdilis albaToba 1:9-ia.

albaTobis koeficienti (Odds ratio, OR): mkurnalobis efeqturobis erTgvari sazomi. gamoiTvleba eqsperimentul jgufSi sakvlevi mdgomareobis (mag., daavadebis) arsebobis albaTobis gayofiT sakontrolo jgufSi igive mdgomareobis (daavadebis) arsebobis albaTobaze.

albaTobis koeficienti rac ufro axlos aris 1-Tan, miT naklebia gansxvaveba eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebs Soris; e.i. intervenciis efeqti gamoxatuli ar aris (Tu kvlveva intervencias moicavs). Tu albaTobis koeficienti 1-sagan mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba (metia an naklebia 1-ze), intervenciis efeqti gamoxatulia.

roca SemTxvevebis raodenoba mcirea albaTobis koeficienti fardobiT risks uaxlovdeba. SemTxvevebis zrdasTan erTad maT Soris gansxvaveba izrdeba.

aRmocenebis sixSire igive, incidenturoba (Incidence): ama Tu im mdgomareobis (daavadebis) axali SemTxvevebis raodenoba populaciaSi drois garkveul monakveTSi.

b დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

bazisuri riski (Baselilne risk): movlenis ganviTarebis riski aqtiuri mkurnalobis gareSe. bazisuri riskis codna mniSvnelovania mkurnalobis dadebiTi Sedegebis Sesafaseblad. pirebma, romelTac ufro maRali bazisuri riski aReniSnebaT, mkurnalobis Sedegad SeiZleba ufro meti sargebloba miiRon.

blok-randomizacia (Block randomisation): randomizacia, romlis drosac uzrunvelyofilia saWiro raodenobis kvlevis subieqtebis (pacientebis) Segroveba TiToeul sakvlev jgufebSi. 

brma meTodi (Blinded): klveva sruliad `brmaa~, rodesac masSi monawile yvela pirsaTvis (rogorc kvlevis subieqtebisaTvis, ise mkurnalobaSi CarTuli samedicino personalisaTvis da kvlevis Sedegis Canawerebis mwarmoebeli pirebisaTvis) ucnobia, kvlevis subieqtebidan, romlebs utardebaT sacdeli mkurnaloba da romlebi arian sakontrolo jgufSi. es ukanaskneli zemoaRniSnuli pirebisaTvis cnobili xdeba mxolod kvlevis Sedegebis interpretaciis Semdeg.

xSirad kvlevis brma meTodis dasazusteblad gamoiyeneba terminebi `erTmagi brma~ an `ormagi brma~ kvleva. ormagi brma kvlevis SemTxvevaSi rogorc kvlevis subieqtisaTvis, ise mkvlevarebisaTvis ucnobia kvlevis subieqtebidan romels utardeba sacdeli mkurnaloba da romeli miekuTvna jgufs.

g დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

gadamkveTi kvleva (Cross sectional study): kvleva, romelSic drois mocemul momentSi ikvleven mosaxleobaze moqmed faqtors an garkveul mdgomareobas an orives erTad.

aseTi kvleva SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes mosaxleobaSi ama Tu im daavadebis gavrcelebis (prevalenturobis) Sesafaseblad.

gavrceleba igive, prevalenturoba (Prevalence): im pirTa wili saerTo populaciaSi, romelTac mocemul momentSi aReniSneba esa Tu is movlena (daavadeba).

gamosavali (Outcome): kvlevis subieqtis klinikuri da funqciuri mdgomareobis maxasiaTebeli eqsperimentuli intervenciis ganxorcielebis Semdeg, romelsac pacientisTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs. gamoiyeneba intervenciis efeqturobis Sesafaseblad.

gamosavali SeiZleba gulisxmobdes sikvdilobas, avadobas, sicocxlis xarisxs, muSaobis unars, tkivils. roca gamosavali gulisxmobs laboratoriul markers, maSin saubaria surogatul gamosavalze (ix. terminis ganmarteba).

ganzogadoebis SesaZlebloba (Generalisability): ix. garegani validuroba (External validity).

ganmartebiTi kvleva (Explanatory study): kvleva, romelic miznad isaxavs ama Tu im intervenciis efeqtis Sefasebas idealur pirobebSi.

aseTi kvlevis farglebSi kvlevis monawileni itareben mkurnalobas ise, rogorc es kvlevis pirobebiT aris gaTvaliswinebuli. amasTan, kvlevis subieqtebi ar itareben sxva saxis mkurnalobas.

ganmartebiTi kvleva gansxvavdeba e.w. pragmatuli kvlevisagan, romelSic efeqturobis Sefaseba realur garemosTan miaxloebul pirobebSi xdeba.

garegani validuroba (External validity, Generalisabilty, Applicability): miuTiTebs imaze, Tu ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli mocemuli kvlevis an literaturis mimoxilvis Sedegebis ganzogadoeba sxva pirobebsa da garemoebebze (magaliTad, ramdenad aris SesaZlebeli statiaSi asaxuli kvlevis Sedegebis misadageba TqvenTvis saintereso konkretuli SemTxvevisadmi – pacientis mdgomareobisadmi).

garegani validurobis arsebobisaTvis aucilebelia, rom kvleva iTvaliswinebdes gansxvavebul garemoebebsa da moicavdes mosaxleobis gansxvavebul jgufebs (magaliTad, sxvadasxva asakis pirebi, sxvadasxva qveynebidan, regionebidan da a.S.).

randomizebuli kvlvebi gviCveneben mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirebs mocemuli kvlevis farglebSi. konkretuli pacientisadmi am kvlevaTa Sedegebis misadagebisaTvis aucilebelia damatebiTi analizi, radgan savaraudo gamosavali mocemuli pacientisaTvis ganpirobebulia am pacientis individualuri TaviseburebebiT. magaliTad, xanSi Sesulebze Catarebuli kvlevebis meta-analizis Sedegebis ganzogadoeba ver moxdeba bavSvebze.

დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

dadebiTi Sedegis winaswarganWvretis Rirebuleba (Positive predictive value; PPV): gamoiyeneba sadiagnozo an skriningis dros gamoyenebuli testebis dasaxasiaTeblad – vargisia Tu ara esa Tu is testi. aRniSnavs ramdenad didia albaToba imisa, rom daavadeba namdvilad arsebobs, roca testis Sedegi dadebiTia (anu albaToba imisa, rom testis dadebiTi Sedegi sworia).

PPV gamoiTvleba Semdegi formuliT:

daavadebulTa raodenoba dadebiTi testiT

dadebiTi testis mqone pirTa saerTo raodenoba

ar SegeSaloT testis mgZnobelobaSi (sensitiurobaSi).

dakvirvebiTi kvleva (Observational study): kvleva, romlis drosac mkvlevari raime intervencias ar axorcielebs da mxolod akvirdeba movlenebis mimdinareobs.

dakvirvebiTi kvlevebi saukeTeso saSualebaa mtkicebulebebis mosapoveblad, roca xdeba prognozis, etiologiis, gavrclebis (prevalenturobis) da aRmocenebis sixSiris (incidenturobis) Sefaseba.

dakvirveba SeiZleba moicavdes raime intervenciis Sedegebis Sefasebas sxvadasxva jgufs Soris, magram am SemTxvevaSi intervencias mkvlevari ar axorcielebs.

e დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

eqsperimentuli kvleva (Experimental study): kvleva, romelSic ikvleven xelovnuri Carevis Sedegs garkveuli hipoTezis Sesafaseblad.

eqsperimentuli kvleva SeiZleba iyos kontrolirebuli. aseT SemTxvevaSi amboben, rom is pirebi, romlebzec xorcieldeba sacdeli (xelovnuri) Careva, eqsperimentul jgufs (an eqsperimentul `mklavs~) ganekuTvnebian.

eqsperimentuli jgufi (Experimental group): kontrolirebuli kvlevis farglebSi Seqmnili jgufi, romlis wevrebze xorcieldeba eqsperimentuli (sacdeli) Careva.

eqsperimentuli jgufisgan gansxvavebiT sakontrolo jgufis warmomadgenlebi iReben alternatiul mkurnalobas an placebos.

v დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

validuroba (Validity): kvlevis Sedegebis sisworis xarisxi; miuTiTebs, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba kvlevis Sedegebi simarTles, realobas da ramdenad aris is Tavisufali zegavlenisagan, cdomisagan, romelic subieqturi faqtorebiT aris ganpirobebuli.

ganasxvaveben Sinagan da garegan validurobas. kvleva Sinaganad validuria, Tu is imgvarad aris dagegmili (kvlevis dizaini) da ganxorcielebuli, rom misi Sedegebi Tavisufalia cdomisa da zegavlenisagan da es Sedegebi realobas Seesabameba. kvlevas axasiaTebs garegani validuroba, Tu SesaZlebelia am kvlevis Sedegebis ganzogadoeba da misadageba pirebisadmi (pacientebisadmi), romlebic yoveldRiuri klinikuri saqmianobis dros gvxdebian  (ix. agreTve ganmartebani terminebisa `Sinagani validuroba~ da `garegani validuroba~).

z დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

zianisaTvis saWiro raodenoba (Number needed to harm, NNH; Number needed to treat to harm, NNTH): saziano efeqtis gamowvevis `unaris~ erTgvari sazomi. warmoadgens im pirTa saSualo raodenobas, romelzec unda ganxorcieldes intervencia drois daTqmul periodSi, raTa erT pirs aReniSnos uaryofiTi efeqti (ziani) an erTiT Semcirdes dadebiTi efeqti.

zianisaTvis saWiro raodenobs gamoTvla SeiZleba 1-is gayofiT absoluturi riskis zrdis maCvenebelze – 1/ARI.

k დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

kvazi-SemTxveviTi ganawileba (Quasi-random allocation): meTodi, romelic gamoiyeneba kvlevis subieqtebis sxvadasxva jgufebSi gasanawileblad, magram ar xdeba SemTxveviTobis principis realurad dacva. magaliTad, ama Tu im jgufisaTvis piris mikuTvneba xdeba dabadebis TariRis, kviris dRis, weliwadis Tvis, samedicino Canaweris nomris, an kvlevis subieqtis rigiTi nomris safuZvelze.

SerCevis aRniSnuli meTodi ar aris Tavisufali cdomisagan da subieqturi faqtorebis zegavlenisagan.

ix. agreTve, `SemTxveviTi ganawileba~ da `randomizacia~.

kvlevis subieqti igive, kvlevis monawile (Research subject, participant): kvlevaSi CarTuli piri, romelzec mimdinareobs dakvirveba. kvlevis subieqti SeiZleba iyos pacienti (Tumca aucilebeli ar aris).

kvlevis oqmi igive, kvlevis gegma (Protocol): gegma, romelSic aRwerilia, Tu rogor unda Catardes kvleva. masSi asaxulia kvlevis miznebi, amocanebi da detaluri meTodologia.

klasteruli randomizacia (Cluster randomisation): klasteruli randomizaciis dros kvlevis ama Tu im mimarTulebaSi CasarTvelad calkeuli pirebis nacvlad SemTxveviTobis principis safuZzvelze SeirCeva mTeli jgufebi (ojaxi, skola, klinika, geografiuli areali, magaliTad, sofeli), romelTac erTidaigive intervencia utardebaT.

SemTxvevebis seriebis meTodiT kvleva ufro naklebad sarwmuno mtkicebulebebs iZleva vidre kontrolirebuli SemTxvevebis kvleva.

kontrolirebuli SemTxvevebis kvleva (Case control study): kvlevis meTodi, romlis drosac xdeba dakvirveba erTi mxriv, pirebze, romlebsac aReniSnebaT garkveuli movlena an gamosavali – daavadeba, paTologiuri mdgomareoba, gadaxra (sakvlevi jgufi); xolo meore mxriv, pirebze, romlebsac aseTi movlena ar aReniSnebaT (sakontrolo jgufi). kvlevis procesSi akvirdebian rogor gavlenas axdens (an ukve moaxdina warsulSi) garkveuli saeWvo faqtorebis zemoqmedeba zemoT moxseniebul jgufebze.

aseTi tipis kvleva gansakuTrebiT mizanSewonilia iSviaTi daavadebebis mizezebis Ziebisas.

kontrolirebuli kvleva igive, kontrolirebuli klinikuri kvleva (Controlled trial, Controlled clinical trial, CCT): kvleva, romelSic kvlevis subieqtebs anawileben or jgufSi: erTi jgufis wevrebze xorcieldeba sakvlevi (sacdeli) Careva (eqsperimentuli jgufi), xolo meore jgufis warmomadgenlebi iReben alternatiul mkurnalobas an placebos (sakontrolo jgufi). 

iseT kontrolirebul kvlevas, romelSic jgufebis SerCevisas gamoiyeneba SemTxveviTobis principi, `randomizebul kontrolirebul kvlevas~ uwodeben (ix. randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvleva).

kontrolirebuli kvlevis dros, roca randomizacia ar gamoiyeneba, subieqturi faqtorebiT ganpirobebuli cdoma ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvlevis SemTxvevaSi.

terminis `kontrolirebuli klinikuri kvleva~ laTinuri Semokleba (CCT) gamoiyeneba monacemTa eleqtronul bazebSi  MEDLINE da CENTRAL.

kontroli (Controls): uwodeben sakontrolo jgufis wevrebs randomizebul kontrolirebul kvlevaSi (RCT). isini iReben an placebos, an standartul mkurnalobas, an araviTar mkurnalobas ar iReben.

korelaciis koefecienti (Correlation coefficient): sazomi, romelic miuTiTebs, Tu ramdenad wrfivi urTierTdamokidebuleba arsebobs or variaciul rigs Soris. korelaciis koeficients gamosaxaven laTinuri asoTi “r”. misi mniSvneloba icvleba -1-sa da 1-s Srois.

Tu koeficienti 1-is tolia, or variaciul rigs Soris arsebobs myari dadebiTi wrfivi damokidebuleba (myari dadebiTi korelacia); e.i. roca erT variaciul rigSi variantis mniSvneloba izrdeba, aseTive cvlilebaa meore variaciul rigSi. amasTan, erTi rigis variantebs Soris gansxvavebis proporciuloba daculia.

Tu koeficienti -1-s udris, maSin saxezea myari uaryofiTi wrfivi damokidebuleba (myari uaryofiTi korelacia); e.i. roca erT variaciul rigSi variantis mniSvneloba izrdeba, meore variaciul rigSi variantis mniSvneloba mcirdeba. amasTan, erTi rigis variantebs Soris gansxvavebis proporciuloba daculia.

korelaciis ararseboba ar gamoricxavs or variaciuli rigs Soris kavSirs. is mxolod wrfivi damokidebulebis arsebobas gamoricxavs.

kohortuli kvleva (Cohort study): kvleva, romelic eqsperiments ar moicavs da romlis drosac akvirdebian adamianTa jgufs (`kohortas~) da afaseben, rogor aRmocendeba esa Tu is movlena (mag., daavadeba) am jgufis wevrebs Soris.

iseTi kohortuli kvlevis dros, roca jgufis wevrebze gansxvavebuli riskfaqtorebi moqmedebs (magaliTad, Tambaqos weva), SesaZlebelia Sefasdes, ramdenad iwvevs es riskfaqtori ama Tu im movlenas (magaliTad, filtvis kibos).

kohortuli kvleva SeiZleba iyos retrospeqtuli (istoriuli) da prospeqtuli. aRniSnulTagan prospeqtuli kohortuli kvlevebi ufro sarwmuno informacias iZleva.

m დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

mgrZnobeloba igive, sensitiuroba (Sensitivity): testis dadebiTi Sedegis miRebis albaToba daavadebis mqone pirebSi; sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, testis `unari~ sworad gamoavlinos piri, romelsac aqvs daavadeba. zogjer mas gamovlenis maCvenebelsac uwodeben. mgrZnobeloba gamoiTvleba procentebSi gamosaxuli Semdegi ganayofiT:

daavadebulTa raodenoba dadebiTi testiT

daavadebulTa saerTo raodenoba

rac ufro metia testis mgZnobeloba, miT ukeTesia misi gamoyeneba daavadebis arsebobis gamosaricxad (Tu testi uaryofiTia, SesaZlebelia daavadebis arsebobis gamoricxva).

meta-analizi (Meta-analysis): statistikuri meTodi, romelic gamoiyeneba sistemuri mimoxilvis dros da gulisxmobs damoukideblad Catarebuli kvlevis farglebSi miRebuli Sedegebis integracias, statistikur damuSavebas da Sejamebas.

gaumarTlebelia terminis `meta-analizi~ gamoyeneba `sistemuri mimoxilvis~ sinonimad. sistemuri mimoxilva gulisxmobs samecniero literaturis sistemur Ziebas, analizs da sxvadasxva kvlevis Sedegebis kritikurl Sefasebas.

misadagebis SesaZlebloba (Applicability): ix. garegani validuroba (External validity).

mkurnalobis ganzraxvis analizi (Intention to treat (ITT) analysis): randomizebuli kontrolirebuli klinikuri kvlevis farglebSi gamoyenebuli statistikuri meTodi, romelic gulisxmobs romelime sakvlev jgufSi CarTuli yvela piris monacemTa analizs imis miuxedavad CautardaT maT dagegmili intervencia, Tu ara an dasrulda Tu ara intervencia.

`mkurnalobis ganzraxvis analizis~ meTodis gamoyeneba saSualebas iZleva Tavidan iqnes acilebuli cdoma, romelic ganpirobebulia kvlevis subieqtebis kvlevidan `gamoTiSviT~.

mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli medicina (Evidence-based medicine; EBM): Tanamedrove mtkicebulebaTa gaazrebuli, Tanmimdevruli da keTilgonivruli gamoyeneba calkeuli pacientis mkurnalobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebisas.

mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli medicinis praqtikulad ganxorcieleba niSnavs eqimis individualuri klinikuri kompetenciis (gamocdileba, codna, unar-Cvevebi, damokidebuleba) Sejerebas mocemuli momentisTvis saukeTeso klinikur mtkicebulebebTan da konkretuli pacientis maxasiaTeblebTan da TaviseburebebTan, misi pirovnuli faseulobebis CaTvliT.

p დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

placebo (Placebo): araaqtiuri nivTiereba Tu meTodi romelic eZleva kvlevis subieqts (sakontrolo jgufis wevrebs) da romelic garegani SexedulebiT, gemoTi an SegrZnebiT hgavs sacdel (eqsperimentul) mkurnalobas. placebo ar axdens raime gavlens sakvlev daavadebaze an mdgomareobaze.

gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom placebis micema kvlevis subieqtisaTvis ar aris igive, rac mkurnalobis Cautarebloba, radgan placebos gamoyenebas aqvs garkveuli fsiqologiuri efeqti. placebo aucilebelia kvlevis brma meTodis gamoyenebisas, roca kvlevis subieqtma an mkvlevarma an orivem erTad ar ician placebos iRebs pacienti (kvlevis subieqti) Tu realur mkurnalobas.

pragmatuli kvleva (Pragmatic study, Pragmatic trial): kvleva, romelic miznad isaxavs ama Tu im intervenciis efeqtis Sefasebas realur garemosTan maqsimalurad miaxloebul pirobebSi.

aseTi kvlevis farglebSi gaTvaliswinebulia is garemoeba, rom sinamdvileSi SeuZlebelia idealuri mkurnalobis Catareba da mkurnalobis yvela komponentis daniSnulebisamebr Sesruleba, agreTve gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom pacientebis nawili xSirad imavdroulad alternatiul mkurnalobasac itarebs.

pragmatuli kvleva gansxvavdeba e.w. ganmartebiTi kvlevisagan, romelSic efeqturobis Sefaseba idealur pirobebSi xdeba.

publikaciis cdoma (Publication bias, reporting  bias): cdoma, romlis mizezia is garemoeba, rom mniSvnelovani efeqtis mqone kvlevis Sedegebis gamoqveynebis albaToba gacilebiT maRalia iseTi kvlevis Sedegebis gamoqveynebis albaTobasTan SedarebiT, sadac aseTi efeqti dadgenili ar iqna.

zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, savaraudoa, rom literaturis mimoxilva ama Tu im intervenciis ufro maRal efeqturobaze miuTiTebs, vidre es sinamdvileSia.

r დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

randomizacia (Randomisation): kontrolirebuli kvlevis farglebSi kvlevis monawileTa ganawileba jgufebSi (eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebSi) SemTxveviTobis principis dacviT.

randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvleva (Randomised controlled trial; RCT): kvleva, romelSic kvlevis subieqtebs SemTxveviTobis principis safuZvelze anawileben or jgufSi: erTi jgufis wevrebze xorcieldeba sakvlevi (sacdeli) Careva (eqsperimentuli jgufi), xolo meore jgufis warmomadgenlebi iReben alternatiul mkurnalobas an placebos (sakontrolo jgufi).

randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvlevis dros SemTxveviTobis principis gamoyeneba gamoricxavs mkvlevaris (eqimis) an kvlevis subieqtis (pacientis) mier gadawyvetilebis miRebas intervenciis Sesaxeb.

aRniSnuli tipis kvleva saSualebas iZleva Sefasdes sakvlevi Carevis SedarebiTi efeqturoba.

regresiuli analizi (Regression analysis): warmoadgens statistikuri modelirebis formas, romlis meSveobiT SesaZlebelia Sefasdes an winaswar gaiWvritos erTi an ramdenime damoukidebeli cvladi faqtoris zegavlena romelime damokidebul faqtorze.

magaliTad, regresiuli analizi SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes asakis, sqesisa da ganaTlebis donis zegavlenis Sesafaseblad ama Tu im daavadebis gavrcelebaze (prevalenturobaze).

riskis koeficienti (Risk Ratio): ix. fardobiTi riski (Relative risk, RR).

s დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

sakontrolo jgufi (Control group): kontrolirebuli kvlevis farglebSi Seqmnili jgufi, romlis wevrebi (kvlevis subieqtebi) iReben alternatiul mkurnalobas an placebos.

sakontrolo jgufSi miRebuli Sedegebi dardeba e.w. eqsperimentuli jgufis (an jgufebis) Sedegebs, sadac kvlevis subieqtebi iReben eqsperimentul (sacdel) mkurnalobas.

samkurnalo efeqtisaTvis saWiro raodenoba (Number needed to treat, NNT; Number needed to treat to benefit, NNTB): mkurnalobis efeqturobis erTgvari sazomi. warmoadgens im pirTa saSualo raodenobas, romelzec unda ganxorcieldes intervencia drois daTqmul periodSi, raTa erT pirs aReniSnos dadebiTi efeqti an Tavidan iqnes acilebuli erTi uaryofiTi movlena.

samkurnalo efeqtisaTvis saWiro raodenobis gamoTvla SeiZleba 1-is gayofiT absoluturi riskis Semcirebis maCvenebelze – 1/ARR.

sarwmunoobis intervali (Confidence interval; CI): stastikuri analizis Sedegad miRebuli Sedegis `meryeobis~ sazomi. sarwmunoobis intervali miuTiTebs mtkicebulebis sarwmunoobaze. is gviCvenebs, ra farglebSia mosalodneli CvenTvis saintereso monacemis meryeoba.

sarwmunoobis intervals, Cveulebriv, 95%-iT gansazRvraven; aRniSnuli niSnavs, rom arsebobs 95%-iani albaToboba imisa, rom sakvlevi movlenis realuri mniSvneloba mocemul intervalSi moxvdeba.

zogjer, sarwmunoobis intervalis miTiTebisas 90%-ian an 99%-ian albaTobas iyeneben.

magaliTad, vTqvaT, mocemuli sididis mniSvneloba 10-ia, xolo am sididisTvis 95%-ani sarwmunoobis intervalia 5-15; es niSnavs, rom Cven SegviZlia 95%-iT viyoT darwmunebuli, rom sakvlevi sididis realuri mniSvneloba 5-sa 15-s Soris aris.

rac ufro farToa sarwmunoobis intervali, miT naklebia sizuste da piriqiT, rac ufro viwroa sarwmunoobis intervali, miT ufro metia sizuste.

saukeTeso mtkicebuleba (Best evidence): Terapiuli meTodebis efeqtis Sesafaseblad saukeTeso meTods warmoadgens randomizebuli klinikuri kvlevebis sistemuri mimoxilvebi.

Tu randomizebuli klinikuri kvlevebis sistemuri mimoxilv(eb)is moZieba ver moxerxda, SeiZleba calkeuli randomizebuli klinikuri kvlevebis (an sulac erTi randomizebuli klinikuri kvlevis) Sedegebis gamoyeneba.

gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom yovelTvis ar aris SesaZlebeli randomizebuli klinikuri kvlevis Catareba, radgan garkveul pirobebSi aseTi kvleva arapraqtikuli an araeTikuria. aseT SemTxvevebSi mogviwevs SedarebiT `dabali xarisxis~ mtkicebulebebis moZieba.

sensitiuroba (Sensitivity): ix. mgrZnobeloba.

sikvdiloba (Mortality): sikvdilis sixSire.

sistemuri mimoxilva (Systematic review): konkretul klinikuri sakiTxis analizi, rac moicavs am sakiTxis Sesabamisi kvlevebis meTodur Ziebas, SerCevasa da kritikul Sefasebas. sistemuri mimoxilvis dros fasdeba da erTmaneTs dardeba sxvadasxva kvlevis Sedegebi.

sistemuri mimoixlva SeiZleba moicavdes meta-analizs (Tumca, es aucilebeli ar aris).

specifikuroba (Specificity): testis uaryofiTi Sedegis miRebis albaToba daavadebis armqone pirebSi; sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, testis `unari~ sworad gamoavlinos piri, romelsac ar aqvs daavadeba. specifikuroba gamoiTvleba procentebSi gamosaxuli Semdegi ganayofiT:

daavadebis armqone pirebis raodenoba uaryofiTi testiT

daavadebis armqone pirTa saerTo raodenoba

rac ufro metia testis specifikuroba, miT ukeTesia misi gamoyeneba daavadebis arsebobis dasadastureblad (Tu testi dadebiTia, daavadebis arseboba SeiZleba dadasturebulad CaiTvalos).

statistikurad mniSvnelovani (Statistically significant): miuTiTebs, rom kvlevis Sedegebi naklebad savaraudoa, rom SemTxveviTi iyos (anu Sedegebi SemTxveviTi ar aris). statistikurad mniSvnelovania Sedegi, roca P<0.05, rac imas niSnavs, rom dafiqsirebuli Sedegi (magaliTad, gansxvaveba eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebSi dafiqsirebul monacemebs Soris) SemTxveviT SeiZleba aRiniSnos SemTxvevaTa araumetes 1/20-Si.

statistikurad umniSvnelo (Statistically significant): miuTiTebs, rom kvlevis Sedegebi SemTxveviTia da amisi albaToba 1/20-ze metia.

aRniSnuli ar niSnavs, rom sakvlev intervencias efeqti saerTod ar hqonda. efeqti SeiZleba iyos, magram is ar aris statistikurad mniSvnelovani da kvleva ar iZleva sarwmuno monacemebs calsaxa daskvnebis gasakeTeblad.

studentis kriteriumi (testi) (Student’s t-test, t test): statistikuri meTodi; gamoiyeneba or sakvlev jgufSi dafiqsirebuli monacemebis Sesadareblad.

surogatuli gamosavali (Surrogate outcomes, intermediary outcomes): gamosavali, romelsac pirdapiri praqtikuli mniSvneloba ar aqvs, magram dakavSirebulia iseT gamosavalTan, romelic Tavis mxriv mniSvnelovania.

magaliTad, arteriul wnevas pirdapiri mniSvneloba ar aqvs pacientebisaTvis, magram SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnes rogorc gamosavali, radgan warmoadgens insultisa da gulis kunTis infarqtis mniSvnelovan riskfaqtors.

surogatuli gamosavali, Cveulebriv, advilad gazomvadi fiziologiuri an bioqimiuri markeria, romelic mniSvnelovani klinikuri gamosavlis prediqtorad[1] iTvleba.

ix. agreTve gamosavali (Outcome).

u დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

uaryofiTi Sedegis winaswarganWvretis Rirebuleba (Negative predictive value; NPV): gamoiyeneba sadiagnozo an skriningis dros gamoyenebuli testebis dasaxasiaTeblad – vargisia Tu ara esa Tu is testi. aRniSnavs ramdenad didia albaToba imisa, rom daavadeba ar arsebobs, roca testis Sedegi uaryofiTia (anu albaToba imisa, rom testis uaryofiTi Sedegi sworia).

NPV gamoiTvleba Semdegi formuliT:

daavadebis armqone pirebis raodenoba uaryofiTi testiT

uaryofiTi testis mqone pirTa saerTo raodenoba

ar SegeSaloT testis specifikurobaSi

f დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

fardobiTi albaToba (Likelihood ratio): garkveuli mdgomareobis (daavadebis) mqone pirebSi dadebiTi testis arsebobis albaTobis Sefardeba im pirebSi dadebiTi testis arsebobis albaTobasTan, romlebsac aseTi mdgomareoba (daavadeba) ar aReniSnebaT.

faqtoruli dizaini (Factorial design): kvlevis meTodi, romlis drosac cdiloben Seafason sxvadasxva inetrvenciis mniSvneloba, nacvlad erTisa. aseTi dizaini SesaZleblobas iZleva Sefasdes calkeuli intervenciis roli, roca maT erTdroulad iyeneben.

magaliTad, nikotinis Canacvlebisa da Tambaqos sawinaaRmdego konsultaciis randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvleva faqtoruli dizainiT 2X2 gulisxmobs Semdegs: imisaTvis, rom ganisazRvros, Tu ra roli aqvs nikotinis Canacvlebas da konsultacias Tambaqos wevis mitovebaSi, kvlevis subieqtebi oTx sxvadasxva jgufSi nawildebian, sadac:

a)     tardeba mxolod nikotiniT CanacvlebiTi mkurnaloba, an

b)     tardeba mxolod Tambaqos sawinaaRdego konsultacia, an

g)     tardeba orive intervencia erTad _ rogorc nikotiniT CanacvlebiTi mkurnaloba, ise Tambaqos sawinaaRmdego gasaubrebas, an

d)     arcerTi intervencia ar xorcieldeba.

amrigad, kvlevis aseTi dizainis gamoyenebisas SesaZlebeli iqneba Sefasdes, ra efeqti aqvs aRniSnuli ori intervenciidan TiToeulis damoukideblad daniSvnisas, agreTve maTi kombinaciaSi gamoyenebas.

fardobiTi riski (Relative risk, RR) igive, riskis koeficienti (Risk Ratio); erT jgufSi garkveuli movlenis aRmocenebis albaTobis Sefardeba meore jgufSi amave movlenis aRmocenebis albaTobasTan. is warmoadgens ori jgufis absuluturi riskebis (AR) Sefardebas.

Cveulebriv, movlena arasasurvel gamosavals Seexeba (daavadeba, paTologiuri mdgomareoba, riskfaqtori) da eqsperimentul jgufSi (jgufSi, sadac kvlevis subieqtebs eZlevaT eqsperimentuli mkurnaloba) movlenis absoluturi riski mricxvelSi iwereba, xolo sakontrolo jgufis absoluturi riski mniSvnelSi. amitom, Tu mkurnaloba efeqturia, fardobiTi riski 1-ze naklebia.

fardobiTi riski analogiuria gansxvavebis koeficientisa (OR), oRond maSin, roca SemTxvevebis raodenoba mcirea.

fardobiTi riskis zrda (Relative risk increase, RRI): riskis fardobiTi zrda eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebs Soris.

fardobiTi riskis Semcireba (Relative risk reduction, RRR): riskis fardobiTi Semcireba eqsperimentul da sakontrolo jgufebs Soris.

mis gamosaTvlelad 1-s akldeba fardobiTi riskis mniSvneloba (1-RR). magaliTad, Tu fardobiTi riski 0.35-ia, maSin fardobiTi riskis Semcireba iqneba 1-0.35=0.65 an 65%.

R დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

Ria kvleva (Open label trial): kvleva, romelSic rogorc mkvlevarma, ise kvlevis subieqtma icis Tu romeli intervencia utardeba kvlevis subieqts (anu, romel jgufs ganekuTvneba kvlevis subieqti – eqsperimentuls, Tu sakontrolos).

SemTxvevebis seriebis meTodiT kvleva ufro naklebad sarwmuno mtkicebulebebs iZleva vidre kontrolirebuli SemTxvevebis kvleva.

S დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

SemTxvevebis seriebi (Case series): daavadebul pirebze (an pirebze, romlebsac aReniSnebaT mkvlevarisaTvis saintereso movlena/gamosavali) dakvirveba da maTi monacemebis analizi. aseTi tipis kvlevis dros sakontrolo jgufi ar arsebobs.

SemTxvevebis seriebis meTodiT kvleva ufro naklebad sarwmuno mtkicebulebebs iZleva vidre kontrolirebuli SemTxvevebis kvleva.

SemTxvevis sixSire (Event rate): sakvlev jgufSi im pacientebis (kvlevis subieqtebis) wili, romlebsac esa Tu is movlena aReniSnebaT.

magaliTad, Tu 100 kvlevis subieqtidan esa Tu is movlena 32 pirs aReniSneba, SemTxvevis sixSire 0.32 iqneba.

zogjer ganasxvaveben SemTxvevis sixSires sakontrolo jgufSi (Control event rate; CER) da SemTxvevis sixSires eqsperimentul jgufSi (Experimental event rate; EER). aRniSnul or sidides Soris sxvaoba, faqtobrivad, absoluturi riskis zrdas an Semcirebas warmoadgens.

aseve ixileT ganmartebani terminebisa `absoluturi riski~, `absoluturi riskis zrda~ da `absoluturi riskis Semcireba~.

SemTxveviTi ganawileba (Random allocation): meTodi, romelic gamoiyeneba kvlevis subieqtebis sxvadasxva jgufebSi gasanawileblad SemTxveviTobis principis safuZvelze. SemTxveviTi ganawilebis dros TiToeul kvlevis subieqts aqvs Tanabari Sansi miiRos kvleviT gaTvaliswinebuli nebismieri intervencia (romelime eqpsperimentuli inervencia an placebo).

ix. agreTve, `kvazi-SemTxveviTi ganawileba~ da `randomizacia~.

Sinagani validuroba (Internal validity): miuTiTebs imaze, Tu ramdenad iZleva mocemul kvlevaSi gamoyenebuli meTodebi da misi ganxorcielebis xarisxi cdomis, subieqturi faqtorebiT ganpirobebuli zegavlenis Tavidan acilebis SesaZleblobas. zogjer mas `meTodologiur xarisxsac~ uwodeben (ix. agreTve ganmartebani terminebisa `validuroba~ da `garegani validuroba~).

c დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

cdoma (Bias): kvlevis Sedegebis gadaxra WeSmariti monacemebisagan, rac kvlevis dros gamoyenebuli meTodiT aris ganpirobebuli.

cru dadebiTi (False positive): termini ZiriTadad sadiagnozo testebTan mimarTebaSi gamoiyeneba, Tumca SeiZleba wamlis (samkurnalo saSualebis) kvlevasac Seexebodes.

sadiangozo testze saubrisas: SemTxveva, roca pirs ar aReniSneba sakvlevi daavadeba (an mdgomareoba), magram misi gamokvlevis Sedegi (sadiagnozo testi) dadebiTia.

klinikuri kvlevebis SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba termini `I tipis Secdoma~: daskvna, rom sakvlevi mkurnalobis meTodi efeqturia, maSin roca sinamdvileSi is uefeqtoa.

cru uaryofiTi (False negative): termini ZiriTadad sadiagnozo testebTan mimarTebaSi gamoiyeneba, Tumca SeiZleba wamlis (samkurnalo saSualebis) kvlevasac Seexebodes.

sadiangozo testze saubrisas: SemTxveva, roca pirs aReniSneba sakvlevi daavadeba (an mdgomareoba), magram misi gamokvlevis Sedegi (sadiagnozo testi) uaryofiTia.

klinikuri kvlevebis SemTxvevaSi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba termini `II tipis Secdoma~: daskvna, rom sakvlevi mkurnalobis meTodi uefeqtora, maSin roca sinamdvileSi is efeqturia.

j დაბრუნდი სარჩევში

jvaredini randomizebuli kvleva (Crossover randomised trial): kvleva, romelSic kvlevis subieqtebi iReben erTi saxis mkurnalobas da afaseben gamosavals. Semdeg igive kontingents utareben alternatiul mkurnalobas da kvlav afaseben gamosavals. mkurnalobis Tanmimdevroba ganisazRvreba SemTxveviTobis (randomizaciis) principis safuZvelze.

zogjer mkurnaloba saerTod wydeba. aseTi periodi `iniSneba~ kvlevis dasawyisSi da kvlevis ganmavlobaSi mkurnalobis or periods Soris (e.w. `gamorecxvis~ periodi). aseTi `gamorecxvis~ periodi aucilebelia ori gansxvavebuli mkurnalobis efeqtis urTierTgavlenis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.

jvaredin randomizebul kvlevas Tavisi nakli aqvs. zogjer mkurnalob efeqts SeiZleba iZleodes mas Semdeg, rac mkurnaloba Sewyda, rac arTulebs ori sxvadasxva mkurnalobis efeqtis Sedarebas. aseTi gviani efeqtis mizezi SeiZleba iyos xanmokle `gamorecxvis~ periodi an samkurnalo saSualebis moqmedebis meqanizmi.

დაბრუნდი უკან

      

inglisur terminTa qarTuli Sesatyvisebi

    დაბრუნდი უკან

Absolute risk increase (ARI) – absoluturi riskis zrda 

Absolute risk reduction (ARR) – absoluturi riskis Semcireba 

Absolute risk (AR) – absoluturi  riski 

Applicability – misadagebis SesaZlebloba, igivea, rac garegani validuroba  (External validity) da ganzogadoebis SesaZlebloba (Generalisabilty)

Baselilne risk – bazisuri riski 

Best evidence – saukeTeso mtkicebuleba 

Bias – cdoma 

Blinded – brma meTodi 

Block randomisation – blok-randomizacia 

Case control study – kontrolirebuli SemTxvevebis kvleva 

Case series – SemTxvevebis seriebi 

Cluster randomisation – klasteruli randomizacia 

Cohort study – kohortuli kvleva 

Confidence interval (CI) – sarwmunoobis intervali 

Control group – sakontrolo jgufi 

Controlled trial, Controlled clinical trial (CCT) – kontrolirebuli kvleva igive, kontrolirebuli klinikuri kvleva 

Controls – kontroli 

Correlation coefficient – korelaciis koefecienti

Cross sectional study – gadamkveTi kvleva 

Crossover randomised trial – jvaredini randomizebuli kvleva 

Event rate – SemTxvevis sixSire 

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) – mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli medicina 

Experimental group – eqsperimentuli jgufi 

Experimental study – eqsperimentuli kvleva 

Explanatory study – ganmartebiTi kvleva 

External validity – garegani validuroba, igivea, rac ganzogadoebis SesaZlebloba (Generalisabilty) da misadagebis SesaZlebloba (Applicability)

Factorial design – faqtoruli dizaini 

False negative – cru uaryofiTi 

False positive – cru dadebiTi 

Generalisability – ganzogadoebis SesaZlebloba, igivea, rac garegani validuroba (External validity) da misadagebis SesaZlebloba (Applicability)

Incidence – aRmocenebis sixSire igive, incidenturoba 

Intention to treat ( ITT) analysis – mkurnalobis ganzraxvis analizi 

Internal validity – Sinagani validuroba 

Likelihood ratio – fardobiTi albaToba 

Meta-analysis – meta-analizi 

Morbidity – avadoba 

Mortality – sikdvdiloba 

Negative predictive value (NPV) – uaryofiTi Sedegis winaswarganWvretis Rirebuleba 

Number needed to harm (NNH), Number needed to treat to harm, (NNTH) – zianisaTvis saWiro raodenoba 

Number needed to treat (NNT), Number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) – samkurnalo efeqtisaTvis saWiro raodenoba 

Observational study – dakvirvebiTi kvleva 

Odds – albaToba 

Odds ratio (OR) – albaTobis koeficienti 

Open label trial – Ria kvleva 

Outcome – gamosavali 

Placebo – placebo 

Positive predictive value (PPV) – dadebiTi Sedegis winaswarganWvretis Rirebuleba 

Pragmatic study (Pragmatic trial) – pragmatuli kvleva 

Prevalence gavrceleba igive, prevalenturoba 

Protocol – kvlevis oqmi igive, kvlevis gegma 

Publication bias (Reporting  bias) – publikaciis cdoma 

Quasi-random allocation – kvazi-SemTxveviTi ganawileba 

Random allocation – SemTxveviTi ganawileba 

Randomisation – randomizacia 

Randomised controlled trial (RCT) – randomizebuli kontrolirebuli kvleva 

Regression analysis – regresiuli analizi 

Relative risk (RR) – fardobiTi riski,  igivea, rac riskis koeficienti  (Risk Ratio)

Relative risk increase (RRI) – fardobiTi riskis zrda 

Relative risk reduction (RRR) – fardobiTi riskis Semcireba 

Reporting  bias (Publication bias) – publikaciis cdoma 

Research subject, participant – kvlevis subieqti igive, kvlevis monawile 

Risk Ratio – riskis koeficienti, igivea, rac fardobiTi riski (Relative risk, RR).

Sensitivity – mgrZnobeloba igive, sensitiuroba 

Sensitivity – mgrZnobeloba, sensitiuroba

Specificity – specifikuroba 

Statistically significant – statistikurad mniSvnelovani 

Statistically significant – statistikurad umniSvnelo 

Student’s t-test, t test – studentis kriteriumi  testi

Student’s t-test, t test – studentis kriteriumi (testi)

Surrogate outcomes, intermediary outcomes – surogatuli gamosavali 

Systematic review – sistemuri mimoxilva 

t test, Student’s t-test – studentis kriteriumi (testi)

Validity – validuroba 

 დაბრუნდი უკან

 inglisur terminTa Semoklebebi

AR – Absolute risk 

ARR – Absolute risk reduction 

ARI – Absolute risk increase 

CI – Confidence interval 

CCT – Controlled clinical trial 

NNH – Number needed to harm 

NNT – Number needed to treat 

NNTB – Number needed to treat to benefit

NNTH – Number needed to treat to harm,

NPV – Negative predictive value

NS – Not significant

OR – Odds ratio 

P – P value 

PPV – Positive predictive value

RCT – Randomised controlled trial 

RR – Relative risk 

RRI – Relative risk increase 

RRR – Relative risk reduction

 დაბრუნდი უკან


[1] prediqtori – `winaswarmetyveli~; igulisxmeba, rom markeris arseboba miuTiTebs ama Tu im movlenis ganviTarebis did albaTobaze.







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